David Carson: What can Social Workers do to avoid being criticised – or sued?

David Carson is Reader in Law and Behavioural Sciences at the Institute of Criminal Justice Studies, University of Portsmouth. He has written extensively on risk-taking, psychology and law. He is co-author of the book, Professional Risk and Working with People: Decision-Making in Health, Social Care and Criminal Justice, published by Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 

I had asked my social work students what additional topics they would like me to lecture upon. As a law lecturer I had explained how they could be sued for negligence and how easily they, and their evidence, could be misrepresented in court. So I should not have been surprised when they said they wanted to know how to take decisions that would avoid liability, and how to deal with lawyers’ cross-examination that is designed to misrepresent them and/or their evidence. They wanted instruction in how to prevent.

That required me to turn my teaching ‘upside down.’ I had to devise practical guidance on what to do, not merely list things not to do. But, from that (unwise?) question to my students, I developed a number of ideas and then separate workshops on how to take professional risk decisions and how to be an expert witness. Audiences, from many different disciplines, around the country stimulated my thinking and it led to two books: Professional Risk and Working with People (with Bain, A, 2008, London: Jessica Kingsley) and Professionals and the Courts: A Handbook for Expert Witnesses, (1990, Birmingham: Venture Press, out of print).

We do not focus, in the risk book, upon professionals’ specialist knowledge, for example the risk factors for child abuse. Rather we identify ways in which professionals can make decisions they will be able to justify if harm occurs which, because it is a ‘risk,’ it sometimes will. Now I am working with individuals and organisations (including policing), who have noted how the ideas not only tackle risk aversion but identify the critical roles and responsibilities of managers and employers. Prevention has considerable potential, not just for lecturing!

Copyright © Jessica Kingsley Publishers 2009

David Carson is the co-author of Professional Risk and Working with People: Decision-Making in Health, Social Care and Criminal Justice ®. See the below link for more details.

Interview with Jan Horwath, author of The Child’s World

Jan Horwath is the author of The Child’s World: The Comprehensive Guide to Assessing Children in Need, 2nd edition, published by Jessica Kingsley Publishers. She is Professor of Child Welfare at the University of Sheffield and she worked as a practitioner, trainer and manager in both voluntary and statutory social work settings before becoming an academic in 1995.

How did you initially become involved in social work with children and families?

As a young social work student I always intended working with children and families therefore, when I completed my training, I looked for a job that would enable me to focus on this user group. My first social work position was with a non-governmental organisation Middlemore Homes in Birmingham. The charity provided residential placements lasting between one and three years for families that had both a history of chronic neglect and the Local Authority was considering care proceedings. My job was to work intensively with a small number of families to improve parenting capacity and address the impact of neglect on the children. I particularly enjoyed having the opportunity to really get to know the families and to use a range of individual and group approaches.

I maintained this interest in children and families whilst working as a generic social worker for both Manchester and Oxfordshire Local Authorities and continued to develop my group work skills by, for example, running groups for young people exhibiting challenging behaviours. A move to Sheffield provided me with an opportunity to further develop these skills with children and young people when I became an intermediate treatment officer. I am particularly proud of the pioneering work I engaged in with colleagues in Sheffield in the mid 1980s which included establishing groups for parents of young offenders. One of our most successful groups was for parents of young men who sexually abused. These experiences provided me with the foundation to go on and practice abroad; provide education and training and manage staff working in the child welfare field.

How has practice with children and families developed and changed since the first edition of The Child’s World eight years ago?

Whilst editing the chapters included in the second edition of the Child’s World I was continually reminded of the significant research, policy and practice developments that have had an impact not only on social work practice but also on the practice of all professionals who come into contact with children and families. Not long after the first edition of The Child’s World was published Lord Laming’s inquiry report following the death of Victoria Climbiè and the Government’s response: Every Child Matters began to have a significant impact on policy and practice. As the book is about assessment practice I’ll focus on that area of practice. One of the most striking changes to assessment policy and practice is the broadening of focus of assessment in order to identify early concerns and children with additional needs. This has been achieved through the introduction of the Common Assessment Framework. There have been considerable changes to organisational and practice contexts which were designed to address concerns about weak accountability and poor levels of service integration. These changes have reinforced the contribution that practitioners from a wide range of disciplines can make to both assessing and meeting the needs of vulnerable children as well as children in need. The changes have also emphasised the role and responsibilities of senior managers in creating a climate that promotes effective practice.

Practice has also changed as a result of increased research regarding, for example, the impact of issues such as domestic violence and drug and alcohol misuse on a carer’s ability to meet the needs of their child. We have also become increasingly aware of the impact of child maltreatment on brain development. Whilst Every Child Matters placed considerable emphasis on measuring outcomes to children, rather than focusing on processes and outputs, performance management systems in adult and children services have, in my opinion, continued to overemphasise processes and outputs, such as measuring the number of assessments completed within prescribed timescales, meaning that the focus on the child and their needs has taken second place. We have also continued to learn lessons from serious case reviews over the last eight years. Similar messages have emerged in terms of making sense of information and using professional judgement and ensuring staff receive adequate supervision. The recent death of Baby Peter highlighted the importance of assessing parents’ level of engagement in terms of motivation to change. Reflecting on all these developments, the most important learning point for me was made by Lord Laming in his inquiry report following the death of Victoria Climbiè in which he emphasised the importance of practitioners understanding what a day is like in the life of a child when assessing their needs.

What, in your opinion, are the main challenges facing social workers today?

Those in the profession have always been aware of the many challenges social workers encounter however, in the past few months these challenges have really come under the political and public spotlight. The interim report of the social work taskforce, for example, outlines many of the challenges and indeed there are many. For example, complex cases, a demoralised workforce; lack of clarity regarding the role of the social worker; an emphasis on performance management and the very negative portrayal of social workers in the media. Yet against this backcloth frontline staff are undertaking some excellent work and not only safeguarding but also promoting the welfare of numerous children. For me the biggest challenge is recognising effective practice and in the same way that we have begun to pay more attention to resilience amongst children and young people we should be considering what makes for a resilient workforce. Why is it that some practitioners can continue to work effectively with service users when others in the same or similar settings struggle?

What do you do in your spare time?

Living in Sheffield with the Peak District on the doorstep it is hardly surprising that I spend much of my spare time walking those hills and dales. I also enjoy walking long distance paths and my current project is the Thames Path. However since the end of June I have been spending much of my spare time with my first grandchild – Oscar. He is an absolute delight and no I’m not biased.

Linda Miller on the ‘5P Approach’ to behaviour management for young people with Autism

Linda Miller is the author of Practical Behaviour Management Solutions for Children and Teens with Autism: The 5P Approach, published by Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Linda is a chartered educational psychologist and chartered scientist with a specialism in autism and related disorders. Visit Linda’s website at www.5papproach.co.uk.

How did you first become interested in working with people with Autism Spectrum conditions?

I’ve been working in this area now for more than 25 years, and my interest began as a teacher in a special school for children with behaviour difficulties. I wanted to know more about why some children were having both communication and behavioural problems, and that’s when I first found out about autism. I quickly became hooked by it, and I’ve been working with autism ever since. I progressed from being a classroom teacher to a provision head, then I became a psychologist, developed my specialism in autism, and I am now the Operations Director of the Eagle House Group which specialises in the care of children and young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Can you tell us more about the 5p Approach which you have developed?

The 5p Approach evolved over several years as a result of my work as a psychologist within schools. I grew increasingly concerned that I was often called in to deal with behaviour difficulties after the event, when a better understanding of autism and the reasons for the behaviour occurring could have prevented many problems arising in the first place. I felt we needed an approach which looked at behaviour from an ASD perspective, which took account of the different types of behaviour and the degree of severity, and which provided a consistent framework of intervention techniques. It was also important to establish a system of record keeping which was clear, visual and easy to use. Gradually the 5p Approach evolved, undergoing constant modification as it was used on a daily basis in schools. It is now a tried and tested, comprehensive ‘package’ which starts by addressing the nature and causes of behavioural issues and then provides a pathway leading to a solution.

How has the public perception of autism changed since you began working in the field?

When my interest in ASD began all those years ago, little was known about the nature of the condition and the reasons for the behavioural issues it gave rise to. However in recent years there has been a huge advance in the understanding of autism and in the development of ways to support children and young people with ASD. There is now much more awareness among the public, and in schools a greater recognition of what is needed for the successful placement of an ASD child. But much more still needs to be done.

What do you think is the biggest challenge faced by people with ASD today?

Overcoming others’ lack of understanding of the nature of autism and helping them to develop an understanding of the needs of individuals on the spectrum. That requires an acceptance and valuing of difference and an appreciation of what is needed to create a suitable ASD “friendly” environment. This would go a long way towards enabling those people with ASD to fully achieve their potential, gain independence and ensure their voice is heard.

What do you like to do in your spare time?

Spending time with my family, gardening, cooking – and reading murder mysteries!

Copyright © Jessica Kingsley Publishers 2009